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  • Missing links

    Posted on March 28th, 2011 Lukas Koster 1 comment

    The challenges of generating linked data from legacy databases

    © extranoise

     

    Some time ago I wrote a blog post about the linked data proof of concept project I am involved in, connecting bibliographic metadata from the OPAC of the Library of the University of Amsterdam with the theatre performances database maintained by the Theatre Institute of The Netherlands.
    I ended that post with a list of next steps to take:

    • select/adapt/create a vocabulary for the Production/Performance subject area
    • select/adapt/create vocabularies for Persons (FOAF?) and Subjects (SKOS?)
    • add internal relationships with the other entities (Play, Production, etc.) in the JSON structure (implement RDF in JSON)
    • Add RDF/XML as output option, besides JSON
    • add external relationships (to other linked data sources like DBPedia, etc.)
    • extend the number of possible URI formats (for Play, Production, etc.)
    • add content negotiation to serve both human and machine readable redirects
    • extend the options on the OPAC side
    • publish UBA bibliographic data as linked open data (probably an entirely new project)

    So, what have we achieved so far? I can be brief about all the ‘real’ linked data stuff (RDF, vocabularies, external links, content negotiation): we are not there yet. This will be dealt with in the next phase.
    Instead, we have focused on getting the simple JSON implementation right, both on the data publishing side and on the data using side. We have added more URIs and internal relationships, and we are using these in the OPAC user interface.
    But we have also encountered a number of crucial problems that are in my view inherent to the type of legacy data models used in libraries and cultural heritage institutions.

    Theatre Production data in the Library Catalogue

     

    Progress

    First let me describe the improvements we have added so far.

    The URI for ‘person<baseurl>/person/<personname> now also returns a link to all the ‘titles’ that person is connected to (not only with the ‘author’ role, but for all roles, like director, performer, etc.): <baseurl>/gettitles/<personname>. This link will return a set of URIs of the form <baseurl>/title/<personname>/<title>. The /<personname>/<title> bit is at the moment the only way that a more or less unique identifier can be constructed from the OPAC metadata for the ‘play’ in the TIN database. There are a number of really important problems related to this that I will discuss below.

    The URI:

    <baseurl>/person/Beckett, Samuel

    returns among others:

    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Endgame
    etc.

    The URI for a ‘play<baseurl>/title/<personname>/<title> now returns a set of ‘production’ URIs of the form <baseurl>/production/<personname>/<title>/<openingdate>/<idnr>.
    The ‘production’ URI returns information about ‘theatre company’, ‘venue‘ and all persons connected to that production, including their URIs, and when available also a link to an image of a poster, and a video.

    The URI

    <baseurl>/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot

    returns:

    /production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-07-28/5777
    /production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750
    /production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1992-04-16/10728
    /production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1981-02-18/43032

    The last ‘production’ URI returns:

    “name”:”Beckett, Samuel”,
    “title”:”Waiting For Godot”,
    “opening”:”1981-02-18″,
    “people”:
    “description”:”Beckett, Samuel (auteur: toneelspel van)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Beckett, Samuel”

    “description”:”Hartnett, John (regie)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Hartnett, John”

    “description”:”Muller, Frans (decor: ontwerp)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Muller, Frans”

    “description”:”Newell, Kym (licht: ontwerp)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Newell, Kym”

    “description”:”Zaal, Kees (geluid)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Zaal, Kees”

    “description”:”Tolstoj, Alexander (uitvoerende: Lucky)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Tolstoj, Alexander”

    “description”:”Weeks, David (uitvoerende: Estragon)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Weeks, David”

    “description”:”Coburn, Grant (uitvoerende: Vladimir)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Coburn, Grant”

    “description”:”Evans, Rhys (uitvoerende: Pozzo)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Evans, Rhys”

    “description”:”Geiringer, Karl (uitvoerende: A Boy)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Geiringer, Karl”

    “description”:”Guidi, Peter (uitvoering muziek)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Guidi, Peter”

    “description”:”Kimmorley, Roxanne (uitvoering muziek)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Kimmorley, Roxanne”

    “description”:”Vries, Hessel de (uitvoering muziek)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Vries, Hessel de”

    “description”:”Phillips, Margot (uitvoering muziek)”,
    “uri”:”/person/Phillips, Margot”

     

    Challenges/problems

    Now, the problems (or challenges) that we are facing here are essential to the core concept of linked data:

    • we don’t have actual matching unique identifiers (URIs)
    • we don’t have explicit internal relations with a common entity in both sources
    • part of the data consists of literal strings in a specific language

    These three problems are interrelated, they are linked problems, so to speak.

     

    Missing identifiers

    To start with the identifiers. Of course we have internal system identifiers in our local Aleph catalogue database. Because we contribute to the Dutch Union Catalogue (originally a PICA system, now OCLC), our bibliographic records also have national Dutch PICA identifiers. And because the Dutch Union Catalogue records are copied to WorldCat, these records in WorldCat also have OCLC numbers.
    Also the Theatre Institute has internal system identifiers in their Adlib database. But at the moment we do not have a match between these separate internal identifier schemes. The Theatre Production database records are not in WorldCat because they’re not bibliographic records.
    We are more or less forced to use the string values of the title and author fields to construct a usable URI, on both sides. Clearly this is the basis of lots of errors, because of the great number of possible variations in author and title descriptions.
    But even if the Theatre Institute’s records were in the Union Catalogue or WorldCat as well, then we still would not have an automatic match without some kind of broker mechanism ascertaining that the library catalogue record describes the same thing as the theatre production database record. The same applies to the author, which of course should be a relation of the type “written by” between the play and a person record instead of string values. Both systems do have internal author or person authority files, but there is no direct matching. For authors this could theoretically be achieved by linking to an online person authority file like VIAF. But in the current situation this is not available.

     

    Missing relations

    This brings me to the second problem. The fact that we are using the string values of title instead of unique identifiers, means that we connect plays and productions with a specific title variety or language. In our current implementation this means that we are not able to link to all versions of one specific play.
    For instance, from our OPAC the following URIs are constructed (two in English, one in French, one in Dutch):

    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot : a tragicomedy in two acts
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot : pièce en deux actes
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot

    In the Theatre Production database (two in English, four in Dutch, one in French, one in German):

    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting For Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachtend op Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (De favorieten)
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (eerste bedrijf)
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot
    /title/Beckett, Samuel/Warten auf Godot

    Only the first and fourth URI from the OPAC will find corresponding titles in the Theatre Production database. The second and third one, using a subtitle within the main title, don’t even have equivalents. And only two of the eight entries from the Theatre Production database have a match in the catalogue.
    In a library catalogue environment we are used to this problem, because catalogues are used for describing physical objects in the form of editions and copies. Unfortunately, also the Theatre Production database just contains records describing productions of a specific ‘edition’ or translation of a play, with only the opening performance information attached.

    This is where I need to talk about FRBR. Basically in a library catalogue environment this means that we should describe the relations between the ‘work’ (original text), the ‘expression’ (the version or translation), the ‘manifestation’ (edition, format, etc.) and the ‘items’ (the physical copies). Via the relations with higher level expression and work, the physical copy could be linked to the unifying work level, and then ideally through some universally valid unique identifier to, in our case, the theatre plays.
    Although FRBR is a publication centered schema used only in libraries, the same concepts can be applied to theatre performances: the original work (which is the same as the work in a bibliographical sense) has expressions (adaptations, translations, etc.), which have manifestations (productions), and in the end the individual items (actual performances on a specific date, time and location).

    Linking library and theatre in theory through FRBR

    If both the library catalogue and the theatre production database were FRBRised, we could in theory link on the Work level and cover all individual versions. But we would still need a matching mechanism on that Work level of course.

    In reality however we can only try to link on the Manifestation level in an imperfect way.

    Linking library and theatre in reality

    At the moment, in our project, on the catalogue side we extract the title and author from the generated OPAC HTML. It could be an option to get available linking information form the internal MARC records (like the 240, 246, 765, 767, 775 tags), but that is not easy because of a number of reasons. Something similar could be done in the theatre production database, making implicit links explicit. But all this makes the effort to get something sensible out there much bigger.

     

    Literal strings

    The third problem, the literal strings in Dutch both in the library catalogue and in the theatre production database, prevents the effective use of the data in multilingual environments, equally in the traditional native interfaces and as linked data. Obviously for English speaking end users the Dutch terms mean nothing. And in a linked data environment the Dutch strings can’t easily be linked to other data, in Dutch, English, or any language, without unique identifiers.

     

    Implicit to explicit

    People calling on institutions to publish their data as linked open data tend to say it’s easy once you know how to do it . And of course it must be done. But if the published datasets have a flat internal structure designed to fulfill a specific local business objective, then they just don’t provide sufficient added value for third party use. In order to make your published open data useful for others, you have to make implicit relations explicit. And this requires something more than just making the data available in RDF ‘as is’, it requires a lot of processing.

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  • Dutch Culture Link

    Posted on October 7th, 2010 Lukas Koster 6 comments

    Linking library and cultural heritage data

    Culture links © Scott Beale/Laughing Squid (http://laughingsquid.com/)

    Interested to publishing a test collection as linked open data to help @StichtingDEN with practical guide for heritage institutions?” That’s what my former colleague at the Library of the University of Amsterdam, now project manager at DEN (Digital Heritage Foundation The Netherlands), Marco Streefkerk asked me in April 2010.

    Was I interested? Of course I was. I had written a blog post “Linked data for libraries” almost a year before, and I had been very interested in the subject since then. Unfortunately in my day job at the Library of the University of Amsterdam (UBA) until very recently there was no opportunity to put my theoretical knowledge to practice. However, in the Library’s “Action plans 2010-2011” (January 2010), the Semantic Web is mentioned in the Innovation chapter as one of the areas with room for a small pilot involving linked data and RDF. I like to think it was me who managed to get it in there ;-)

    To come back to Marco’s question, I was at the time actually trying to think of a linked data/RDF test, and it so happened that I had talked to Ad Aerts of the Theater Institute of The Netherlands (TIN) about organising such a test the day before! So that’s what I told Marco. And things started from there.

    The first idea was to publish a small test set of records from one of the University Library’s own heritage collections. The goal from the point of view of DEN was to publish a short practical guide how to publish heritage collection as linked data, targeted at heritage institutions.
    But after some email discussions and meetings we decided to incorporate TIN in this test and apply both sides of the linked data concept: publish linked data and use linked data.
    Apart from a library catalogue, TIN also has a large database containing metadata on theater performances and a large collection of audiovisual material related to these performances. The plan was to publish the performance metadata and related digital material as linked data.
    The UBA would then use this TIN linked data in their traditional MARC based OPAC to enrich the plain bibliographic metadata if the OPAC search results related to theater plays.

    We decided to name our little proof of concept project “Dutch Culture Link”. The people involved for DEN are Marco Streefkerk, Annelies van Nispen and Monika Lechner. For TIN it’s Ad Aerts. For UBA: Roxana Popistasu and myself. Of these five people I knew four already face to face and one (Monika) on Twitter. I think this helps.

    To start with, we described the data model of the TIN Productions and Performances database (in terms of relationships or triples) as follows:

    • a Play is written by one or more Persons (as author)

      DCL data model

    • a Play can be ‘effectuated’ in one or more Productions
    • a Production can be ‘staged’ in one or more Performances
    • a Performance takes place in one Venue on a specific date and time
    • a Person can be producer of a Production
    • a Person can be director of a Production
    • a Person can play a character in a Production, or even in an individual Performance

    Besides the metadata TIN also has links from the database to digital collections (sound and video recordings, photographs, reviews). The model is strikingly similar to the bibliographic FRBR model. The Play is a FRBR Work, the Production is a FRBR Expression and/or Manifestation, the Performance is a FRBR Item.

    Now we knew who and what, but not yet how. We needed to know how to actually apply the theoretical concepts of linked data to our subject area. Questions we had were:

    • which ontology/vocabulary (‘data model’) do we need for publishing the production data?
    • how to format URIs (the linked data unique identifiers)
    • how do we implement RDF?
    • which publication techniques and platforms do we use?
    • which scripting languages can we use?
    • how do we find and get the published linked data?
    • how do we process and present the retrieved linked data?

    We definitely needed some practical hands-on tutorials or training. We could not find an institution organising practical linked data training courses in The Netherlands at short notice. Via Twitter Ian Davis referred us to their TALIS training options. Unfortunately, because we are only an informal proof of concept pilot project without any project funding, we were unable to proceed on this track.
    However, through a contact at The European Library we managed to enter two members of our project team as participants in the free Linked Data Workshop at DANS in The Hague, with Herbert Van De Sompel, Ivan Herman and Antoine Isaac as trainers. This workshop proved to be very useful. Unfortunately I could not attend myself.

    After the workshop we decided to adopt an “agile” aproach: just start and proceed with small steps. For the short term this meant on the TIN side: implementing a script that accesses the XML gateway of the Adlib system underlying the Theater Production Database and produces result in JSON format. The script accepts as input URIs of the form <baseurl>/person/<name>, <baseurl>/play/<person>/<title>, etc. For now only the <baseurl>/person/<name> works, but there are more to come.

    An example: the request <baseurl>/person/joost van den vondel gives the JSON result:

    jsonTIN({
    “key”:”vondel, joost van den”,
    “name”:”Vondel, Joost van den”,
    “birth.country”:”Duitsland”,
    “birth.date”:”17 november 1587*”,
    “birth.place”:”Keulen”,
    “death.date”:”5 februari 1679*”,
    “death.place”:”Amsterdam”
    })

    On the UBA side, if there is an author and/or title field in an individual OPAC result, a JavaScript addon to the Aleph OPAC HTML templates directs a query at the TIN linked data URL using one or both fields as input. The resulting JSON data from TIN is then processed and displayed. At the moment only the author field is used in the <baseurl>/person/<name> query. But here is more to come.

    UBA test OPAC with TIN data

    Next steps in this project:

    • select/adapt/create a vocabulary for the Production/Performance subject area
    • select/adapt/create vocabularies for Persons (FOAF?) and Subjects (SKOS?)
    • add internal relationships with the other entities (Play, Production, etc.) in the JSON structure (implement RDF in JSON)
    • Add RDF/XML as output option, besides JSON
    • add external relationships (to other linked data sources like DBPedia, etc.)
    • extend the number of possible URI formats (for Play, Production, etc.)
    • add content negotiation to serve both human and machine readable redirects
    • extend the options on the  OPAC side
    • publish UBA bibliographic data as linked open data (probably an entirely new project)

    The team will be blogging about project developments (in Dutch) on the DEN blog (addition July 7 2011: new DEN blog location).

    To be continued…

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  • Linked Data for Libraries

    Posted on June 19th, 2009 Lukas Koster 8 comments
    Linked Data and bibliographic metadata models

    ted

    © PhOtOnQuAnTiQuE

    Some time after I wrote “UMR – Unified Metadata Resources“, I came across Chris Keene’s post “Linked data & RDF : draft notes for comment“, “just a list of links and notes” about Linked Data, RDF and the Semantic Web, put together to start collecting information about “a topic that will greatly impact on the Library / Information management world“.

    While reading this post and working my way through the links on that page, I started realising that Linked Data is exactly what I tried to describe as One single web page as the single identifier of every book, author or subject. I did mention Semantic Web, URI’s and RDF, but the term “Linked Data” as a separate protocol had escaped me.

    The concept of Linked Data was described by Tim Berners Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web. Whereas the World Wide Web links documents (pages, files, images), which are basically resources about things, (“Information Resources” in Semantic Web terms), Linked Data (or the Semantic Web) links raw data and real life things (“Non-Information Resources”).

    There are several definitions of Linked Data on the web, but here is my attempt to give a simple definition of it (loosely based on the definition in Structured Dynamics’ Linked Data FAQ):

    Linked Data is a methodology for providing relationships between things (data, concepts and documents) anywhere on the web, using URI’s for identifying, RDF for describing and HTTP for publishing these things and relationships, in a way that they can be interpreted and used by humans and software.

    I will try to illustrate the different aspects using some examples from the library world. The article is rather long, because of the nature of the subject, then again the individual sections are a bit short. But I do supply a lot of links for further reading.

    Data is relationships
    The important thing is that “data is relationships“, as Tim Berners Lee says in his recent presentation for TED.
    Before going into relationships between things, I have to point out the important distinction between abstract concepts and real life things, which are “manifestations” of the concepts. In Object modeling these are called “classes” (abstract concepts, types of things) and “objects” (real life things, or “instances” of “classes“).

    Examples:

    • the class book can have the instances/objects “Cloud Atlas“, “Moby Dick“, etc.
    • the class person can have the instances/objects “David Mitchell“, “Herman Melville“, etc.

    In the Semantic Web/RDF model the concept of triples is used to describe a relationship between two things: subject – predicate – object, meaning: a thing has a relation to another thing, in the broadest sense:

    • a book (subject) is written by (predicate) a person (object)

    You can also reverse this relationship:

    • a person (subject) is the author of (predicate) a book (object)
    Triple

    Triple

    The person in question is only an author because of his or her relationship to the book. The same person can also be a mother of three children, an employee of a library, and a speaker at a conference.
    Moreover, and this is important: there can be more than one relationship between the same two classes or types of things. A book (subject) can also be about (predicate) a person (object). In this case the person is a “subject” of the book, that can be described by a “keyword”, “subject heading”, or whatever term is used. A special case would be a book, written by someone about himself (an autobiography).

    The problem with most legacy systems, and library catalogues as an example of these, is that a record for let’s say a book contains one or more fields for the author (or at best a link to an entry in an authority file or thesaurus), and separately one or more fields for subjects. This way it is not possible to see books written by an author and books about the same author in one view, without using all kinds of workarounds, link resolvers or mash-ups.
    Using two different relationships that link to the same thing would provide for an actual view or representation of the real world situation.

    Another important option of Linked Data/RDF: a certain thing can have as a property a link to a concept (or “class”) , describing the nature of the thing: “object Cloud Atlas” has type “book“; “object David Mitchell” has type “person“; “object Cloud Atlas” is written by “object David Mitchell“.

    And of course, the property/relationship/predicate can also link to a concept describing the nature of the link.

    Anywhere on the web

    ERD

    ERD

    So far so good. But you may argue that this relationship theory is not very new. Absolutely right, but up until now this data-relationship concept has mainly been used with a view to the inside, focused on the area of the specific information system in question, because of the nature and the limitations of the available technology and infrastructure.

    The “triple” model is of course exactly the same as the long standing methodology of Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD), with which relationships between entities (=”classes“) are described. An ERD is typically used to generate a database that contains data in a specific information system. But ERD’s could just as well be used to describe Linked Data on the web.

    Information systems, such as library catalogs, have been, and still are, for the greatest part closed containers of data, or “silos” without connections between them, as Tim Berners Lee also mentions in his TED presentation.

    Lots of these silo systems are accessible with web interfaces, but this does not mean that items in these closed systems with dedicated web front ends can be linked to items in other databases or web pages. Of course these systems can have API‘s that allow system developers to create scripts to get related information from other systems and incorporate that external information in the search results of the calling system. This is what is being done in web 2.0 with so-called mash-ups.
    But in this situation you need developers who know how to make scripts using specific scripting languages for all the different proprietary API’s that are being supported for all the individual systems.
    If Linked Data was a global standard and all open and closed systems and websites supported RDF, then all these links would be available automatically to RDF enabled browser and client software, using SPARQL, the RDF Query Language.

    • Linked Data/RDF can be regarded as a universal API.

    The good thing about Linked Data is, that it is possible to use Linked Data mechanisms to link to legacy data in silo databases. You just need to provide an RDF wrapper for the legacy system, like has been done with the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

    Some examples of available tools for exposing legacy data as RDF:

    • Triplify – a web applications plugin that converts relational database structures into RDF triples
    • D2R Server – a tool for publishing relational databases on the Semantic Web
    • wp-RDFa – a wordpress plugin that adds some RDF information about Author and Title to WordPress blog posts

    Of course, RDF that is generated like this will very probably only expose objects to link TO, not links to RDF objects external to the system.

    Also, Linked Data can be used within legacy systems, for mixing legacy and RDF data, open and closed access data, etc. In this case we have RDF triples that have a subject URI from one data source and an object URI from another data source. In a situation with interlinked systems it would for instance be possible to see that the author of a specific book (data from a library catalog) is also speaking at a specific conference (data from a conference website). Objects linked together on the web using RDF triples are also known as an “RDF graph”. With RDF-aware client software it is possible to navigate through all the links to retrieve additional information about an object.

    Linked Data

    Linked Data

    URI’s
    URI’s (“Uniform Resource Identifiers”) are necessary for uniquely identifying and linking to resources on the web. A URI is basically a string that identifies a thing or resource on the web. All “Information Resources”, or WWW pages, documents, etc. have a URI, which is commonly known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator).

    With Linked Data we are looking at identifying “Non-information Resources” or “real world objects” (people, concepts, things, even imaginary things), not web pages that contain information about these real world objects. But it is a little more complicated than that. In order to honour the requirement that a thing and its relations can be interpreted and used by humans and software, we need at least 3 different representations of one resource (see: How to publish Linked Data on the web):

    • Resource identifier URI (identifies the real world object, the concept, as such)
    • RDF document URI (a document readable for semantic web applications, containing the real world object’s RDF data and relationships with other objects)
    • HTML document URI (a document readable for humans, with information about the real world object)
    rdfredir2

    Redirection

    For instance, there could be a Resource Identifier URI for a book called “Cloud Atlas“. The web resource at that URI can redirect an RDF enabled browser to the RDF document URI, which contains RDF data describing the book and its properties and relationships. A normal HTML web browser would be redirected to the HTML document URI, for instance a web page about the book at the publisher’s website.

    There are several methods of redirecting browsers and application to the required representation of the resource. See Cool URIs for the Semantic Web for technical details.

    There are also RDF enabled browsers that transform RDF into web pages readable by humans, like the FireFox addon “Tabulator“, or the web based Disco and Marbles browsers, both hosted at the Free University Berlin.

    RDF, vocabularies, ontologies
    RDF or Resource Description Framework, is, like the name suggests, just a framework. It uses XML (or a simpler non-XML method N3) to describe resources by means of relationships. RDF can be implemented in vocabularies or ontologies, which are sets of RDF classes describing objects and relationships for a given field.
    Basically, anybody can create an RDF vocabulary by publishing an RDF document defining the classes and properties of the vocabulary, at a URI on the web. The vocabulary can then be used in a resource by referring to the namespace (the URI) and the classes in that RDF document.

    A nice and useful feature of RDF is that more than one vocabularies can be mixed and used in one resource.
    Also, a vocabulary itself can reference other vocabularies and thereby inherit well established classes and properties from other RDF documents.
    Another very useful feature of RDF is that objects can be linked to similar object resources describing the same real world thing. This way confusion about which object we are talking about, can be avoided.

    A couple of existing and well used RDF vocabularies/ontologies:

    (By the way,  the links in the first column (to the RDF files themselves) may act as an illustration of the redirection mechanism described before. Some of them may link to either the RDF file with the vocabulary definition itself, or to a page about the vocabulary, depending on the type of browser you use: rdf-aware or not.)

    A special case is:

    • RDFa – a sort of microformat without a vocabulary of its own, which relies on other vocabularies for turning XHTML page attributes into RDF

    Example
    A shortened example for “Cloud Atlas” by David Mitchell from the RDF BookMashup at the Free University Berlin, which uses a number of different vocabularies:

    <?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″ ?>
    <rdf:RDF
    xmlns:rdf=”http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#”

    xmlns:skos=”http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#”>

    <rdf:Description rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/books/0375507256″>
    <rev:hasReview rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/reviews/0375507256_EditorialReview1″/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/persons/David+Mitchell”/>
    <dc:format>Paperback</dc:format>
    <dc:identifier rdf:resource=”urn:ISBN:0375507256″/>
    <dc:publisher>Random House Trade Paperbacks</dc:publisher>
    <dc:title>Cloud Atlas: A Novel</dc:title>
    </rdf:Description>

    <scom:Book rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/books/0375507256″>
    <rdfs:label>Cloud Atlas: A Novel</rdfs:label>
    <skos:subject rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/subject/Fantasy+fiction”/>
    <skos:subject rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/subject/Fate+and+fatalism”/>

    <foaf:depiction rdf:resource=”http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51MIVHgJP%2BL.jpg”/>
    <foaf:thumbnail rdf:resource=”http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51MIVHgJP%2BL._SL75_.jpg”/>
    </scom:Book>

    <rdf:Description rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/doc/books/0375507256″>
    <dc:license rdf:resource=”http://www.amazon.com/AWS-License-home-page-Money/b/ref=sc_fe_c_0_12738641_12/102-8791790-9885755?ie=UTF8&amp;node=3440661&amp;no=12738641&amp;me=A36L942TSJ2AJA”/>
    <dc:license rdf:resource=”http://www.google.com/terms_of_service.html”/>
    </rdf:Description>

    <foaf:Document rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/doc/books/0375507256″>
    <rdfs:label>RDF document about the book: Cloud Atlas: A Novel</rdfs:label>
    <foaf:maker rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/is-group/resource/projects/Project10″/>
    <foaf:primaryTopic rdf:resource=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/books/0375507256″/>
    </foaf:Document>

    <rdf:Description rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/persons/David+Mitchell”>
    <rdfs:label>David Mitchell</rdfs:label>
    </rdf:Description>

    <rdf:Description rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bookmashup/reviews/0375507256_EditorialReview1″>
    <rdfs:label>Review number 1 about: Cloud Atlas: A Novel</rdfs:label>
    </rdf:Description>

    <rdf:Description rdf:about=”http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/is-group/resource/projects/Project10″>
    <rdfs:label>RDF Book Mashup</rdfs:label>
    </rdf:Description>

    </rdf:RDF>

    A partial view on this RDF file with the Marbles browser:

    RDF browser view

    RDF browser view

    See also the same example in the Disco RDF browser.

    Library implementations
    It seems obvious that Linked Data can be very useful in providing a generic infrastructure for linking data, metadata and objects, available in numerous types of data stores, in the online library world. With such a networked online data structure, it would be fairly easy to create all kinds of discovery interfaces for bibliographic data and objects. Moreover, it would also be possible to link to non-bibliographic data that might interest the users of these interfaces.

    A brief and incomplete list of some library related Linked Data projects, some of which already mentioned above:

    And what about MARC, AACR2 and RDA? Is there a role for them in the Linked Data environment? RDA is supposed to be the successor of AACR2 as a content standard that can be used with MARC, but also with other encoding standards like MODS or Dublin Core.
    The RDA Entity Relationship Diagram, that incorporates FRBR as well, can of course easily be implemented as an RDF vocabulary, that could be used to create a universal Linked Data library network. It really does not matter what kind of internal data format the connected systems use.

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